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What is your birth month? Perfect. You found the earrings just for you. That was easy. Ok, there is more to these stud earrings than just finding your birth month - we know. Each choice is set in beautiful two-tone scrollwork with a cut-out undergallery. Pick out your birth month or find your friend's. These studs will light up any look.

Birthstone Earring Choice Details

January

  • Orang-red Garnet: Two oval cut 8 x 6mm orange-red garnet
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm white topaz
  • 7/16"L x 5/16"W x 1/4"H

February

  • Two oval cut 8 x 6mm amethyst
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm white topaz
  • 7/16"L x 5/16"W x 1/4"H

March

  • Four oval cut 5 x 3mm light blue aquamarines
  • 3/8"L x 5/16"W x 1/8"H

April

  • Two oval checkerboard cut 9 x 7mm white quartz
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm white topaz
  • 7/16"L x 1/4"W x 1/4"H

May

  • Four oval cut 4 x 3mm emeralds
  • 3/8"L x 5/16"W x 1/8"H

June

  • Two oval 10 x 8mm Mabe pearl cabochons
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm
  • 5/8"L x 1/2"W x 1/4"H

July

  • Four oval cut 4 x 3mm rubies
  • 3/8"L x 5/16"W x 1/8"H

August

  • Two oval cut 8 x 6mm peridot
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm white topaz
  • 7/16"L x 5/16"W x 1/4"H

September

  • Four oval cut 4 x 3mm blue sapphires
  • 3/8"L x 5/16"W x 1/8"H

October

  • Two oval shape 8 x 6mm multi color Ethiopian opal cabochons
  • Four round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm white topaz
  • 9/16"L x 7/16"W x 3/16"H

November

  • Two oval checkerboard cut 9 x 7mm
  • Two round modified-brilliant cut 1.75mm
  • 7/16"L x 1/4"W x 1/4"H

Additional Earring Details

  • Metal: 18K yellow gold embraced™ sterling silver and palladium
  • Setting Type: Prong
  • Approximate Total Weight:
  • January: 3.06ctw
  • February: 2.46ctw
  • March: 0.76ctw
  • April: 3.26ctw
  • May: 0.06ctw
  • June: 0.06ctw
  • July: 0.80ctw
  • August: 2.76ctw
  • September: 0.88ctw
  • November: 3.56ctw
  • Collection: Gems en Vogue
  • Country of Origin: Vietnam

Warranty: Limited one-year vendor warranty from the date of purchase. Please call 1-800-268-7962.

All weights pertaining to gemstones, including diamonds, are minimum weights. Additionally, please note that many gemstones are treated to enhance their beauty. View Gemstone Enhancements and Special Care Requirements for important information.

GoldoverSilver    PlatinumoverSilver    Amethyst    Citrine    Emerald    Peridot    Quartz    Ruby    Sapphire    Aquamarine    Garnet    GemsenVogue    Studs    

Vermeil Plating:
Pronounced "vermay," vermeil is an electroplating process in which 14K gold or higher is coated over sterling silver. Officially designated by the jewelry industry, items may only be sold as vermeil if they have a minimum thickness of 100 millionths of an inch (2.5 microns) of gold over the silver. Regular gold plating is less than 2.5 microns.

The "vermeil" technique of plating sterling silver with gold originated in France in the 1750s. It differs from "gold filled" or "gold plated" in terms of the thickness or thinness of the microns over sterling silver. "Gold filled" pieces have a much thicker layer, between 15 and 45 microns, which is mechanically bonded to the base metal with heat and pressure. Vermeil is a more expensive version of "gold plated". It does not wear off as quickly as gold plating does. However, over time, vermeil wears off and therefore will require re-plating.

Gold/Platinum Embraced Silver or Bronze:
Our platinum and gold embraced collections feature layers of platinum or gold over sterling silver or bronze for a lustrous, radiant finish everywhere you look and touch.

To care for your plated jewelry items:

  • Remove jewelry before bathing, swimming, washing hands, putting on make-up, lotions, perfumes, and/or working with household chemicals, cleaners, or acidic liquids.
  • Do not clean plated jewelry in an ultrasonic cleaner or in silver cleaning solutions, as it could completely remove the plating finish from your item.
  • Ensure your jewelry item is thoroughly dry before storing. Moisture in an enclosed space can increase tarnishing.
  • Store your plated jewelry in a jewelry box lined with felt or anti-tarnish material. Items should not be stacked as this may cause damage to the plating surface.
  • Do not use excessive pressure when cleaning with a polishing cloth or soft brush, as this may cause damage to the plating.
  • Over time your plated items will need to be re-plated. Contact your local jeweler for information on plating services.

    Platinum Plating:
    Platinum can be used as a finish coating over sterling silver or copper alloys. Its bright, pure luster enhances the brilliance of gemstones and does not discolor or oxidize. Platinum plating is also characterized by its good resistance to surface abrasion, making jewelry pieces more durable against everyday and long-term wear. Over time, platinum plating will wear off and therefore will require re-plating.

    To care for your plated jewelry items:

  • Remove jewelry before bathing, swimming, washing hands, putting on make-up, lotions, perfumes, and/or working with household chemicals, cleaners, or acidic liquids.
  • Do not clean plated jewelry in an ultrasonic cleaner or in silver cleaning solutions, as it could completely remove the plating finish from your item.
  • Ensure your jewelry item is thoroughly dry before storing. Moisture in an enclosed space can increase tarnishing.
  • Store your plated jewelry in a jewelry box lined with felt or anti-tarnish material. Items should not be stacked as this may cause damage to the plating surface.
  • Do not use excessive pressure when cleaning with a polishing cloth or soft brush, as this may cause damage to the plating.
  • Over time your plated items will need to be re-plated. Contact your local jeweler for information on plating services.

    Amethyst
    Amethyst, the most precious member of the quartz family, exhibits purple shades ranging from pale lilac to deep purple, sometimes exhibiting reddish or rose overtones. Very deep-colored amethysts are the finest and most highly valued . Some stones are so over-saturated with color they have areas that are blacked out, which can negatively impact their value. Paler shades, sometimes called "Rose of France," were common in Victorian jewelry. Banding—darker and lighter zones of color—is also a common occurrence. Occasionally, amethyst is even found combined with its sister quartz, citrine, into a single stone called ametrine.

    The birthstone for February, amethyst is an extremely popular gem for jewelry because of its regal color, variety of sizes and shapes, affordability and wide range of hues. It also is the recommended gem for couples celebrating their 6 th and 17 th wedding anniversaries. With a hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs Scale , a methyst can occur as long prismatic crystals that have six-sided pyramids at either end, or can form as drusies that are crystalline crusts that only show the pointed terminations.

    The ancient Greeks believed that amethyst made one immune to the effects of alcohol. In fact, the name even comes from the Greek word amethystos, which means “not drunken.” Legend has it that the amethyst originated from Bacchus, the god of wine. Bacchus became angry at the mortals and vowed that the next mortal to cross his path would be eaten by tigers. Amethyst, a beautiful young maiden, was on her way to worship the goddess, Diana. Diana turned her into colorless quartz to keep her from being eaten. Bacchus observed the miracle and repented his hasty decision. He poured wine over the young maiden, leaving her feet and legs colorless. This is the reason that amethyst crystals are usually uneven in color and have a colorless base at the bottom. Because amethyst was believed to prevent drunkenness, wine goblets were often carved from it in ancient Greece. Today, the gem still symbolizes sobriety.

    Amethyst has been a part of history throughout the ages. Evidence suggests that prehistoric humans used amethysts for decoration as early as 25,000 B.C. Legends suggest that the Egyptian queen Cleopatra wore an amethyst signet ring, as did Saint Valentine, who bared an amethyst engraved with the figure of Cupid. During medieval times, people used the stone as medication to stay awake and alert. Leonardo Da Vinci claimed that amethyst could dissipate evil thoughts and quicken the intelligence. In some legends, the stone represents piety, celibacy and dignity. In the Middle Ages, for instance, the gem was an important ornamentation for the Catholic Church and other religions. It was considered the stone of bishops, and they still often wear amethyst rings. In Tibet, amethyst is considered sacred to Buddha and rosaries are often made from it. Amethyst has also long been a favorite of kings and queens for its royal purple hues that symbolize wisdom, strength and confidence. Amethysts are even featured in the British Crown Jewels and were worn by Catherine the Great.

    Amethyst’s availability and magical qualities make it the stone of preference in ancient lore and mysticism. As a meditation stone, it is said to quiet the mind, promote contemplation, sharpen psychic powers and uplift the spirit. It is a stone of deep wisdom. Folklore says it can quicken the wit, calm fears and ward off anger. It has a royal purple essence that is said to lend courage to travelers, scare off thieves and protect travelers from harm. Placed under the pillow or worn to bed, there are claims it promotes peaceful sleep and pleasant dreams. Amethyst can also be worn to supposedly make the wearer gentle, amiable and happy.

    The stone is mined in Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina, as well as in Zambia, Namibia and other African nations. Very dark amethyst in small sizes also is mined in Australia. But the ideal for fine quality amethyst was set by a Siberian variety, often called Russian or Uralian amethyst, which is now considered a defunct source. Generally, South American amethyst tends to come in larger sizes than African amethyst, but the African variety has a reputation for having deeper color intensity and is therefore considered more valuable. The African version also is harder to come by than amethyst mined from South America. Most of today's amethyst comes out of Brazil.

    Lune de France is a very special variety of amethyst that rarely comes to market. From the northwest state of Amazon in Brazil, this gemstone comes from the Maraba mine. This lovely lilac gemstone features a unique velvet-like quality that at first observation can be confused for an opal or moonstone. The gemstone's internal structure contains natural, cloud-like veils of microscopic inclusions that are extremely minute, even under high power magnification. These inclusions cause the incoming light to scatter and reflect, thus creating an opalescent effect. While a similar inclusion structure can be expected in rose quartz, it almost never occurs in an amethyst. Lune de France features a natural lilac color and retains excellent transparency allowing it to be faceted for maximum light play.

    Citrine
    Named from the French word for lemon, “citron,” citrine is a variety of quartz available in a range of golden hues from lemon, to straw, to sun yellow, to deep gold, to orange, brown and deep red. Darker colors are more highly valued, including the medium golden-orange and dark-sherry colors, sometimes called Madeira citrine after the color of the wine.

    Citrine crystals can form together with amethyst to form ametrine, or with smoky quartz to form bicolored quartz. Citrine is generally less expensive than amethyst, and is also available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including very large sizes. Considered an alternative to topaz as the birthstone for November, it is also thought to be the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 13 th and 17 th wedding anniversaries. Citrine ranks a 7.0 on the Mohs Scale, and because of this durability, it is ideal for jewelry wear.

    Citrine is found in volcanic rocks and quartz veins and owes its color to the presence of iron. Most citrine is mined in Brazil, but almost all of the Brazilian material is heat-treated amethyst. Supplies are most plentiful in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, particularly from the Serra Mine. The Ira' Mine also produces large quantities of the gem. Citrine can also be found in the Ural Mountains of Russia, in Dauphine, France, and in Madagascar.

    In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. It was thought to give calmness and mental balance to its wearer. Throughout history, people have confused citrine for topaz. Many citrines were sold as topaz and thus thought to carry the same qualities, such as knowledge and beauty. Today, citrine symbolizes truth and integrity, and is believed to promote creativity and personal clarity. It is also believed to impart happiness and cheer to its wearer while raising self esteem, as well as cleanse, regenerate and attract abundance.

    Emerald
    The symbol of spring and rebirth, the emerald has a color of green that communicates harmony, love of nature and a primeval joy of life. The word emerald was derived from the French “esmeraude,” which comes from the Greek root "smaragdos,” meaning simply “green gemstone.” For centuries, emerald green has been the color of beauty and eternal love. Even in ancient Rome, green was the color dedicated to Venus, goddess of love and beauty. Many cultures and religions today hold a special position for the color. For instance, green is the holy color of Islam; all states of the Arabian league sport green banners symbolizing the unity of their religion; and green is among the liturgy colors in the Catholic church. The emerald gem is May’s birthstone, and it is the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 20 th and 35 th anniversaries.

    Emeralds come in a variety of light and dark shades of green, often with subtle background hues of other colors such as yellow, blue, brown or gray. Most often, the purer and richer the green color, the more valuable the stone. Flawless emeralds are exceptionally rare, and therefore command great prices (even higher than diamonds, in some instances). Most naturally grown emeralds, however, have numerous inclusions that weaken their structure and cloud their color. F laws and cloudiness, called “jardin,” are very common in emeralds, so many are treated in some way to remove surface flaws and enhance color. The most common technique is to oil the stone with a green-tinted oil that strengthens the stone and fills in surface cracks.

    Emerald gemstones have been prized for thousands of years for their lush green hues and rare beauty. Venus, the goddess of love, is said to have loved the stone, and ancient Romans associated the emerald with her because it symbolized reproduction. Nero is said to have watched the Roman games in the coliseum through a set of highly prized emerald glasses. It's also said that Isis, the mother goddess, wore a green emerald on her headband. Supposedly, all who looked upon it would be able to conceive and were guaranteed a safe trip through the land of the dead. The gem is also considered the magical stone of forest spirits (elves).

    In ancient Egypt, emeralds were mined close to the Red Sea. This tranquil green gem was highly prized by priests and the wealthy, and it is said that Cleopatra loved it more than any other gem. In fact, gemstone mines called “Cleopatra’s Mines” were exploited by Egyptian pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C., and were found empty when they were rediscovered centuries later. Even the ancient Incas and Aztecs in South America, where the best emeralds are still found today, worshipped the emerald as a holy stone. With the conquest of South America by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, emeralds became more plentiful in Europe. Pizarro and Cortez took over the existing emerald and gold mines of the Inca and Mayan civilizations. They shipped these fortunes back to Spain, who in turn shipped them to trading ports throughout the world, turning Spain into one of the leading world powers of the time.

    Phrases about emeralds appear in the Veda, ancient sacred writings of Hinduism, including “Emeralds promise good luck” and “The emerald enhances your well-being.” Treasure chests of Indian Maharajas and Maharanis contained wonderful emeralds. One of the largest emeralds in the world is the "Mogul Emerald.” Dating back to the year 1695, it weighs 217.80 carats. One side is inscribed with prayers, while the other side is engraved with opulent flower ornaments. This legendary stone was auctioned off at Christie’s of London for 2.2 million U.S. dollars to an anonymous buyer. Other famous emeralds include a cup made from pure emerald that was owned by Emperor Jehingar. It is currently located in the New York Museum of Natural History, as is a Colombian emerald crystal weighing 632.00 carats. The entire collection is owned by the Bank of Bogota and contains five valuable emerald crystals weighing between 220.00 and 1,796.00 carats.

    Throughout the ancient world, emerald symbolized eternal hope, rebirth and the arrival of spring. The ancients ascribed numerous magical and mystical properties to this most precious of green gems. It was believed to give a person psychic powers, in that the gem could tell if a lover’s affections were true. Some cultures believed the gem rewarded its owners with love, intelligence, eloquence and a soothed soul. Middle Age seers used emeralds to foretell the future, as well as to ward off evil spirits and cure ailments ranging from bad eyesight to infertility. During the Renaissance, emeralds were used as a test for friendship among the aristocracy. It was believed that an emerald given to a friend would remain perfect as long as the friendship endured. The stone was also said to improve memory and bring great wealth to its wearer.

    Emeralds have long been thought to have healing powers, especially for eyesight. It is said that in business, emeralds can be used to promote sales and cash flow. It is also used to attract love by quickening the heart. The emerald is believed to put one in touch with the mind and have positive effects on psychic powers. It is said to increase those powers when used in meditation. Wearing an emerald bracelet on the left wrist is said to protect you when traveling in forests.

    Brazil is by far the world's largest producer of emerald, with a wide range of quality. The finest emeralds have traditionally come from Colombia, but Russia's Ural Mountains also have produced top-quality gems. Other sources for the stone include Afghanistan, Australia, Egypt, India, Pakistan, South Africa, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Emeralds belong to the beryl group of stones. They have large, perfect, six-sided crystals with a hardness of 7.0-8.0 on the Mohs Scale.

    Peridot:
    Peridot features a lively yellow-green color that is transparent with an oily luster. The iron that creates peridot’s color is an integral part of its structure, so the gem is only found in various shades of green. It is most prized in lime hues, but Italian peridot is a rich olive color and popular American peridot is a beautiful light yellow-green. The Romans called peridot “evening emerald” because its exquisite green color was said to glow at night. This is perhaps because the stone exhibits double refraction, meaning that when looking through the stone, objects appear double. So when looking into a faceted peridot, the number of bottom facets appears to be double the actual number, creating a glittering sensation.

    Pronounced PEAR-A-DOE, the word “peridot” comes from the French word meaning “gem.” It is the gem variety of the mineral olivine and ranks a 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs Scale.

    Born in cauldrons of fire, peridot is considered the “volcanic gem,” since small crystals of it are often found in the rocks created by volcanoes. In fact, Hawaiian legend called peridot the divine tears wept by Pele, goddess of the volcano. The island of Oahu even has beaches made out of olivine grains, but they are much too small to cut into peridot. Samples of the gem also have been discovered in meteorites that have fallen to Earth, many of which are more than a billion years old.

    Peridot traces its jewelry roots to 3,500 years ago. The stone was first mined by the ancient Egyptians on the volcanic island of Zebargad in the Red Sea. Known as the “serpent isle,” it was infested with poisonous snakes that interfered with mining activity until one Pharaoh had them all driven into the sea. Today, Native Americans mine most peridot on the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona. Interestingly, a lmost all peridot sold in Hawaii is from Arizona, despite the fact that peridot is produced by Hawaii's volcanoes. The gemstone is also found in Norway, Brazil, China, Egypt, Italy, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. An exciting new deposit was discovered in Pakistan in 1994, yielding some of the finest peridot ever seen, including one stone that weighed more than 300.00ct.

    Peridot is among the oldest known stones and has been mined as a gem for thousands of years. As early as 1575 to 1350 B.C., the ancient Egyptians used peridot beads in their ceremonial jewelry. In fact, it is believed the stone was one of the favorite gems of Cleopatra and that some of the “emeralds” she wore were actually peridot.

    Ancient Egyptians also carved small drinking vessels out of large chunks of peridot. Priests would drink soma from them in rituals, believing the soma would put them in touch with the nature goddess, Isis. Legend has it that King Soloman traded cedar trees from Lebanon for 12 soma drinking cups and 144 liters of soma. The Egyptians made this trade for ramp logs to build their pyramids at Gisa, while King Soloman was said to have been enlightened by drinking soma from the peridot cups. Today, Mexican hill tribes still drink soma from green glazed cups to put them in touch with nature and their ancestors’ spirits. Additionally, some Native American Indians in Arizona use tea made from peyote ground with peridot crystals in their rituals.

    Peridot has also been important to other cultures throughout history. Late in the Ottoman Empire (1300 to 1900), peridot was a highly prized gem and Turkish Sultans amassed some of the world’s largest collections of the gemstone. It is mentioned in the Bible under the name of “chrysolite,” and was used to decorate medieval churches with samples that were most likely carried back to Europe by the Crusaders. Large stones weighing more than 200.00ct adorn the Shrine of the Three Magi at the Cologne Cathedral in Germany.

    Throughout the ages, peridot has been believed to hold mystical powers of protection and healing. The ancients regarded the stone as a symbol of the sun and wore it in amulets to prevent nightmares and drive away evil spirits. It was even favored by pirates to protect them against evil. Peridot was said to be useful for calming raging angers, curing nervous afflictions and promoting quiet sleep. It was also believed to strengthen any medicine drunk from goblets carved from the stone. South American Shamans used peridot to ward off snakebites and the evil spirits who have taken the form of mosquitoes who bring the sleeping sickness. They also say the heating of magic mushroom tea by peridot takes them on trips to the ancestor heavens.

    Today, peridot is believed to bring the wearer success, peace and good luck. To be most powerful, it is said that the stone should be mounted in gold and surrounded with small diamonds. With powers that are thought to bring protection and health, modern folklore also says it can be used to attract love and calm anger while soothing nerves and dispelling negative emotions. T he gem is believed to protect the wearer from bad dreams when set in gold.

    Peridot is considered the birthstone of August. Given as a symbol of fame, dignity and protection, this gem is also traditionally given to couples celebrating their 16 th wedding anniversaries.

    Quartz:
    With its uniquely mystical appearance, quartz was the “rock crystal” used in ancient times to make crystal balls. It was believed to attract energy and is still considered to be spiritual today. The gemstone was once believed to be a compact form of ice. In fact, the Greeks originally named quartz “krystallos,” meaning ice, but this terminology soon applied to any type of crystal.

    Often identified by its six-sided prism shape, quartz is the most common mineral on Earth, found in nearly every environment throughout the globe. With a ranking of 7.0 on the Mohs Scale, it is a component of almost every rock type and occurs in virtually every color imaginable. Quartz has a great amount varieties that are well-known by other names, including amethyst, citrine, ametrine, rock crystal, agate, druzy, chalcedony, tigers eye and many more. There are also several varieties that hold the name “quartz,” including rose quartz, smokey quartz and rutilated quartz.

    The pale pink color of quartz is known as rose quartz, the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 2 nd anniversary. It is a delicate powder pink color that ranges from transparent to translucent. Transparent rose quartz is quite rare and is usually so pale that it does not show much color, except in large sizes. The translucent quality of rose quartz is much more common and is used for jewelry and carvings.

    Rose quartz is probably one of the most prized stones for its mystical properties. Known as the “Heart Stone,” it is believed to have incredible powers to balance emotions and open the heart. Folklore says rose quartz can comfort brokenhearted people, bringing healing and clarity to the heart and allowing the wearer to learn to trust again. The stone is also said to foster happiness and the joy of life by bringing about contentment in love and filling one with optimism, tenderness and gentleness.

    In addition to helping with romantic love, rose quartz is believed to enhance all other forms of love as well, including self-love, platonic and maternal. Its loving, nurturing energy is said to take away fears, resentment and anger and replace them with feelings of higher self-esteem and confidence. This soothing stone is also thought to balance emotions and heal emotional wounds. It is said to be especially powerful in times of stress or loss, bringing peace and calm to the wearer.

    Ranging in color from nearly black to smoky brown, smoky quartz is transparent and owes its warm earthen hue to exposure to natural radioactivity. Care must be taken since its rich color will fade in the sun. Spelled either “smoky” or “smokey,” this variety of quartz is often incorrectly called “smoky topaz.”

    Smoky quartz is believed to help dissolve negative energy and release stress. It is said to be a mild sedative with a relaxing effect that calms, soothes and restores balance and harmony. Folklore says the gem can embrace dark areas with light and love and therefore clear and cleanse the body both physically and emotionally. Smoky quartz is thought to be a warm, friendly and down-to-earth gem.

    Rutilated quartz is a type of transparent rock crystal that contains long, fine needles of rutile crystals (titanium dioxide). These highly valued inclusions form a landscape of shining gold needles in an array of patterns that is breathtakingly beautiful. These golden inclusions are also known as Venus hair, Cupid’s darts and fleches d’amour (“arrows of love”). There is a less well-known variety called tourmalinated quartz that, instead of golden rutile, forms black or dark green tourmaline crystals.

    Although rutilated quartz is usually cut as a cabochon, it can be a difficult stone to attain a smooth surface without pits. This is because rutile ranks a 6.0 on the Mohs Scale , while quartz ranks 7.0. The difference in hardness between the two materials, and because of the way rutile forms inside, causes problems when cutting. Each final cut piece is unique, with no two being exactly alike. Modern folklore says rutilated quartz brings forth each person's strengths, originality and ability to relate to others.

    Tourmalinated quartz is a clear form of quartz with silver-tone filaments and threads of black tourmaline running through it. Because tourmalinated quartz is a combination of quartz and tourmaline, it has influences and characteristics of both these gems.

    All quartz rock that is absent of color is deemed rock crystal. This category of quartz has the clarity of pure water, without as much as a hint of pigment. While this colorless quartz is too common to be considered a precious gemstone, it is still beautiful, as well as affordable. Rock crystal is commonly used in decorative carvings, figurines and chandeliers. It is also easy to cut, making it well suited in the creation of eye-catching jewelry.

    Phantom quartz is a variety of quartz which, over the course of millions of years, forms over existing rock crystals. It takes its name from the particular structure of the trigonal crystals that form within its shape, known as the phantom. Found mostly in Austria, Brazil, Madagascar, Switzerland and the United States, phantom quartz can also be found in smoky quartz, citrines and amethysts. These phantoms, or the inner crystals, are usually composed of other minerals such as chlorite, goethite, hematite or even other kinds of quartz like the smoky and milky quartz.

    Mention of phantom quartz is found in 2000-year-old texts where it was believed to have formed on ice hidden in dark caverns for millions of years. This ice, when exposed to extreme cold, got encased with the quartz, thus trapping the phantom within. Perhaps because of their elusive beginnings, phantom quartz are sometimes referred to as ghost crystals, specter crystals or even shadow crystals.

    Ruby:
    For thousands of years, ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It is called the "King of Gemstones" and known as the stone of love. The gem is the red variety of the mineral corundum, and while any other color of corundum is denominated as "sapphire," only red corundum may be called "ruby. " Pure corundum is colorless, but slight traces of elements are responsible for ruby's purplish bluish-red to orange-red color. In fact, the name "ruby" was derived from the Latin word "rubens,"meaning "red."

    The finest rubies are an intensely saturated pure red with no overtones of brown or blue. They are readily available in sizes up to 2.00ct and have incredible durability, ranking a 9.0 on the Mohs Scale (second only to diamonds in hardness). Rubies may show very different shades of red depending on their origin, and the range of these reds is quite considerable. The gem's intense color was once thought to come from an undying flame inside the stone, while other legends say each stone is a piece of the planet Mars.

    Color is the gem's most important feature to determine its value, yet transparency is a close second. Rubies that are clear with no visible inclusions are more valuable than those with visible internal flaws. Inclusions, however, do not affect the quality of a ruby unless they decrease the transparency of the stone or are located at the center of its table. Inclusions within a ruby are something like the gem's fingerprints, stating its individuality while at the same time proving its genuineness from nature. Some rubies distinguish themselves with a wonderful silky shine, called the "silk" of the stone, which is created by fine rutile needles within the gem.

    The rutile mineral is also involved within very scarce star rubies. As can be found in sapphires, there is a translucent variety of ruby that displays a six-point star when cut into a smooth domed cabochon. Rutile is embedded in an asterisk-shape within the ruby, causing a captivating light effect called "asterism." Six-ray stars appear to magically glide across the surface of the stones as they are moved. Star rubies are expensive rarities and should always display the stars exactly in the center of the gem. The star stone is said to be the home of each person's angel, who lives there in contentment with the ruby's spirit.

    Rubies are found in many countries throughout the world, each location producing rubies of specific qualities and colors. Rubies from Thailand are often dark red tending towards brown, a color called "Siam." Rare rubies from Ceylon are mainly light red, like ripe raspberries, while rubies of Vietnamese origin generally display a slightly purplish hue. Rubies are also produced in India, where relatively large ruby crystals have been discovered. These particular rubies, however, have many inclusions, but are excellently suited to be cut as beads or cabochons. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Russia have also produced top-quality rubies, but the rough terrain in these areas makes mining difficult.

    Kenya and Tanzania are also becoming more important as mining sources for ruby. Their light to dark red colors rival the world's best rubies, yet most of the stones are fraught with inclusions that diminish their transparency and value. Like those found in India, however, the East African rubies can be cut into beautiful cabochons to enhance their color and conceal their imperfections.

    Top-quality rubies are quite rare and are often considered even more valuable than colorless diamonds, particularly in sizes above 5.00ct. High prices tend to reflect their tremendous value. In 1988, a 16.00ct ruby sold at auction for $227,301 at Sotheby's in Geneva, Switzerland. A 27.37ct Burmese ruby ring sold for $4 million at Sotheby's in 1995, which was an astounding $146,145 per carat.

    It is possible that no other gemstone has been as prized as the ruby. Celebrated in the Bible and in ancient Sanskrit writings as the most precious of all gemstones, rubies have adorned emperors and kings throughout history. Until improvements in chemical testing in the 1800s, most red gem-quality stones were called rubies. Thus, many of the famous "rubies" in the crown jewels of Europe, including Britain's "Black Ruby" and the "Timur Ruby," have since been identified as red spinels or garnets. Today, rubies continue to decorate the insignia of many Royal Houses.

    In the 13th century, traveler Marco Polo wrote that Kublai Kahn, the Mongol Emperor of China, once offered an entire city for a ruby the size of a man's finger. In ancient Hindu writings, the ruby represents the sun power. In China, the stone was given as offerings to Buddha.

    Rubies were also given as offerings to Krishna in India. For a long time, India was considered the classical country of rubies. Their literature offers a rich and varied knowledge of the stone that was collected and handed down for over two thousand years. In the Sanskrit language, ruby is called "ratnaraj," which translates as "king of gemstones." Whenever a spectacular ruby was found, the emperor would send out his notables to welcome the precious gemstone in an appropriate style fit for a king.

    In the Middle Ages, it was believed that a ruby could change color and grow darker to warn its owner that danger or illness was near. Thought to ward off misfortune, it was believed to chase away evil spirits and the spirits of the dead. The deep red color of rubies has been used for centuries as protection and to convey invulnerability. Soldiers wore them into battle to guard against wounds and promote healing if they received a wound. The color of blood, the stone is symbolic of courage and bravery. Warriors were said to have implanted rubies under their skin to bring them valor in battle, make them invincible against enemies and ensure victory.

    Rubies have also been historically thought to bestow wisdom, wealth and love. In China and Europe during the 10th century, dragons and snakes were carved in the gems' surfaces to increase the flow of money and power to their owners. A common belief was that dreaming of rubies meant the coming of success in business and money matters. Rubies were also used to capture a mate and light the passion of romance. The gem was believed to have the magical powers of sexual fire and success in love. It has also been said by ancient lore to be capable of reconciling lovers' quarrels.

    It is believed that ruby should be worn with gold to banish sadness and bring joy. Given as a symbol of success, devotion and integrity, the ruby is July's birthstone and the traditional gift for 15th and 40 th wedding anniversaries. Rubies have symbolized passion and romance for centuries, so when placed in engagement rings, they express unbridled love and promise of the heart.

    Sapphire:
    An ancient Persian legend states the Earth rests on a gigantic sapphire that gives its blue reflection to the sky. The most popular colors for sapphires range from light blue to a blue that appears black. Hence, the name was derived from the Latin form of the Greek word for blue, "sapphirus." These blue colors are caused by iron and titanium in the stone. Bright daylight makes most sapphires shine more vividly than the somewhat muted artificial light. So the most highly cherished color for blue sapphires is not the darkest blue, but a deep and satiated blue, which even in dim, artificial light remains to appear blue.

    While sapphires are best known for being velvety blue, it was decided long ago to consider all gemstones of the mineral family corundum to be sapphires. Non-blue sapphires are termed "fancy" and can be nearly any color, including yellow, green, white, pink, orange, brown, purple and even black. Red corundum is the exception, however, and was given the special name of "ruby."

    In lighter-colored sapphires, the shade of color is determined by how the stone is cut. A cutter must take special care with sapphires. Not only do they rank a 9.0 on the Mohs Scale, second only to diamonds in hardness, but they display a different coloring and satiation depending on the perspective. The cutter must align the orientation of the stone in such a way as to bring about the best possible display of color.

    There are a great number of varieties of sapphire, many of which are quite rare and highly sought-after in the gemstone market. A rare orange-pink variety, known as padparadscha, can be even more valuable than blue sapphire. Given the poetic name meaning "lotus blossom," it features a delicate orange color with pink undertones

    Another rare variety of sapphire is known as the color-changing sapphire. This stone exhibits different colors in different light. In natural light, color-changing sapphire is blue, but in artificial light, it is violet. This effect is the same phenomenon seen in alexandrite.

    For experts and connoisseurs, the Kashmir-color is considered the most beautiful and valuable shade. It features a pure and intensive blue, which is enhanced by a fine, silky gloss. Its color does not change in artificial light, but remains intense with a deep, velvety sheen. Setting the standard for the color of top-quality sapphires, Kashmir sapphires were found in 1880 after an avalanche. They were intensely mined for only eight years until the source was depleted. The Burma-color is also considered especially valuable, ranging from rich royal blue to deep cornflower blue. Ceylon sapphires are prized as well for the luminosity and brilliance of their light to medium blue color.

    There is a translucent variety of sapphire, called star sapphire, which displays a six-point star when cut into a smooth domed cabochon. The mineral rutile is embedded in an asterisk-shape within the stone, causing light to reflect in a phenomenon called "asterism." Six- or twelve-ray stars appear to magically glide across the surface of the stones as they are moved. Star sapphires and rubies are expensive rarities and should always display the stars exactly in the center of the gem. The star stone is said to be the home of each person's angel, who lives there in contentment with the sapphire's spirit.

    White sapphires have become a very suitable diamond substitute. With their high light refraction and level of hardness, they provide a less expensive alternative that is still very capable of turning heads with a very convincing sparkle.

    The oldest sapphire mines are situated in Ceylon, where gemstones were mined in ancient times. Most blue sapphires today come from Thailand or Australia, but sapphires from Kashmir and Myanmar are highly prized. A large sapphire occurrence stretches across several miles in Madagascar. There are also two large occurrences in Tanzania, where smaller, yet high-quality sapphires are found. The stone is also mined in many other parts of the world.

    Sapphires are readily available in sizes of up to 2.00ct, but gems weighing 5.00-10.00ct are not unusual. The cushion-cut Logan Sapphire from Sri Lanka weighs an astounding 423.00ct and can be seen at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. There is also a 258.00ct stone set in the Russian crown, which is kept in the Diamond Fund in Moscow.

    Because the gem has long symbolized sincere love and enduring faithfulness, blue sapphires are often given in engagement rings to express commitment and loyalty. Many women throughout the world decide on the blue stone for their engagement rings, as the gem also represents truth, friendship, harmony and consistency. Sapphire blue has become a color related to anything permanent and reliable, making it an ideal stone to symbolize the promise of marriage.

    Often referred to as "Gem of the Heavens," sapphire also symbolizes a noble soul. It is September's birthstone and is traditionally given as 5th and 45th wedding anniversary gifts. Star sapphires are given for the 65th anniversary. The color sapphire-blue is known for representing clarity and competence. In fact, the first computer to ever declare victory over a chess grandmaster and world champion was named "Deep Blue."

    Sapphires have been associated with magical powers throughout the ages. The Greeks identified white sapphires with Apollo and the oracles at Delphi used them to tap into the subconscious and super conscious. In the 13th century, it was said that when worn, sapphires cooled the inner heat of anger. Soldiers wore them to prevent capture by enemies and kings wore the gemstone to defend against harm and put themselves in divine favor. This supposed "divine favor" is why sapphires were often the gemstone of choice for high priests and royalty throughout history. In fact, the British Crown Jewels contain a number of notable sapphires.

    During the Middle Ages, sapphires symbolized the tranquility of the heavens and wearing them was thought to bring peace, happiness and purity of the soul. Medieval priests and monks would wear sapphire jewelry believing it had the ability to quell wicked impulses and impure thoughts. The color blue became the symbol of the union between a priest and the heavens, so sapphires came to be adorned on the rings of bishops.

    Today, sapphires are still believed to hold special powers. It can be considered an aid to psycho kinesis, telepathy and clairvoyance, while providing spiritual enlightenment and inner peace. White sapphires, like diamonds, are considered the guardians of love, enhancing it and ensuring fidelity in marriage. The most powerful type of the gem is said to be the star sapphire. They are believed to protect against negative energy and have a calming effect that allows the mind to experience tranquility, joy and clear thinking.

    Aquamarine:
    Aquamarine's name was derived from the Latin terms "aqua" meaning water and "mare" for sea. According to legend, aquamarine was the treasure of mermaids and held the power to keep sailors safe at sea. Sailors carried it to stay in the good graces of Poseidon and ward off seasickness. Other folklore says that aquamarine was the stone of the sea-goddesses and sirens. Sea goddesses were said to cleanse the stone in the ocean water at night by the light of the full moon. Beads of aquamarine are even found in ancient Egyptian mummy tombs, used as a tribute to the gods of the netherworld for safe passage.

    From the lightest sky-blue to the deepest sea blue, aquamarines are found in an exceptionally beautiful spectrum of blue hues. With its clear brilliance, deeper colors are unusual in smaller sizes since it generally takes a larger stone to hold a darker shade. The most prized aquamarines are those displaying a deep, intense, pure blue with no green tints. These are more rare and therefore more valuable. Unlike its emerald sister, aquamarine is known for being relatively free of inclusions with evenly distributed color. It retains excellent clarity, which is why aquamarines are frequently cut with large step facets to show off their flawless surfaces, immaculate transparency and high brilliance.

    The different shades of aquamarine are distinguished by their names. "Santa Maria" is the name for the rare, intensely deep blue aquamarines found in the Santa Maria de Itabira Mine in Brazil. Similar colors are found in some of the sparse aquamarine gemstone mines in Africa, especially in Mozambique. In order to better distinguish them, these aquamarines are denoted as "Santa Maria Africana." Not quite as deeply blue are "Espirito Santo" aquamarines from the Brazilian state of Espirito Santo. Another beautiful color has been named in honor of a Brazilian beauty queen from 1954, and has become famous as "Martha Rocha."

    Aquamarine is thought to possess a number of mystical properties , with powers that allegedly develop best if the stone is immersed in sun-drenched water. It is a stone of peace, joy and happiness, especially in the renewing of relationships. Its pale blue color arises sympathy, trust and harmony, all feelings that soothe and calm emotional fires or problems. The gem is said to re-awaken love in married couples or spark new friendships. In fact, carrying an aquamarine is supposed to guarantee a happy marriage and to make its owner happy. As a necklace, it is the most magically ideal gift for a groom to give his bride on the day of their nuptials.

    In ancient times, aquamarine was thought to be capable of preserving youth and health. In magic today, this beautiful stone is worn or carried to enhance the utilization of psychic powers. Aquamarine can be worn as a magic charm to ensure good health, to halt fear and to strengthen courage. Because it is a cleansing and purification stone, it can be worn or rubbed on the body as a part of a purification ritual. Aquamarine can also be worn or carried as a protective amulet while sailing or flying over water. Fishermen, sailors and pilots have long made it their special amulet against danger. Other modern beliefs suggest the Santa Maria aquamarine makes the heart beat faster.

    Now and then, sensationally large crystals are found. The largest known aquamarine is a 243-pound stone found in Brazil in 1920. It was cut into many smaller stones, and a 13-pound uncut piece resides in the American Museum of Natural History. Another noted aquamarine is an 879.50ct step-cut flawless sea green stone that is on display in the British Museum of Natural History. Aquamarine is found in many exotic places around the world, including Afghanistan, Angola, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Russia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Most of the gemstones available in the market today, however, come from Brazil.

    Many modern designers have named aquamarine as their favorite stone, as its light color allows for a special creative freedom to bring out the character and brilliance of each stone. Gemstone artists get their inspiration for new cuts more often from aquamarines than from any other stone. These creative designer cuts have no doubt contributed to its high popularity. Aquamarine is the March birthstone and has become the traditional gift for 16 th and 19 th anniversary gifts. With an 8.0 ranking on the Mohs Scale , the stone is very durable and can stand up to everyday wear. It is the symbol for youth, hope, health and fidelity.

    >Garnet
    Garnet comes in a vast rainbow of naturally exquisite hues, occurring in every color except blue. It is the family of minerals that displays the greatest variety of colors than any other mineral. The eight major types of garnets include almandine, pyrope, demantoid, grossularite, tsavorite, hessonite, rhodolite and spessartite.

    Named after the ancient gemstone city of Alabanda in Asia Minor, the most common type of garnet is almandine (also called almandite). It is a dark red to brownish red stone that is only slightly different from the chemical structure of its sister stone, called pyrope. While nature only grows pyropes in small sizes, it allows for almandine crystals to form in larger dimensions.

    Pyrope is a high-quality garnet that can be purplish red, blood red, orange-red or crimson. It is often called the Bohemian garnet since its fierce and often slightly bronze color was highly popular in the 18th and 19th century when it came from the north-eastern part of the former Kingdom of Bohemia. In Europe during the Victorian times, pyrope garnets frequently decorated jewelry with many of these small stones tightly arranged along each other like the seeds of a pomegranate. In fact, the name “garnet” most likely was derived from the pomegranate, a fruit whose deep, red-purple color resembles some varieties of the gem. Many ancient pieces of garnet jewelry are also studded with the tiny red gems.

    Demantoid is a rich green variety of garnet primarily found in the Ural Mountains of Russia. Russia’s leading court jeweler, Carl Fabergé, loved this brilliant garnet more than any other stone and used it in many of his creations that were lavishly adorned by the Tsars of Russia. Today, demantoid is appearing more often in the gemstone market because of new finds in Namibia. However, these particular garnets from Namibia lack "horsetail-inclusions,” the fine bushy-shaped inclusions that are characteristic of the sought-after Russian demantoids. The gem is quite rare and can cost several thousand dollars per carat depending on size and quality. The larger, brighter demantoid s are exceedingly scarce and have been known to show exceptional brilliance, even higher than diamonds.

    Grossularite, available in pinks, browns, greens and yellows, is especially cherished because of its many in-between shades and earth colors. In the last year of the 20th century, large grossularite occurrences were discovered in Mali. Charming because of their high brilliance, the Mali garnets make even the brown color attractive and vivid.

    Tsavorite is the trade name for a fine green grossularite. It ranges from vivid light green to velvety deep green and, like all other garnets, features a strikingly high brilliance. Tsavorite was discovered in 1967 by British geologist Campbell R. Bridges, and was re-named by Tiffany’s in New York after its occurrence near the famous game park Tsavo-National Park. Mined in Tanzania and Kenya, this particular stone is quite rare and can cost several thousand dollars per carat depending on size and quality. Larger tsavorites are exceedingly scarce.

    Hessonite is the variety name for a fine orange, cinnamon brown or pinkish variety of grossularite. It most commonly occurs in golds, oranges and browns.

    Rhodolite is a pyrope-almandine garnet that features a velvety red color with a fine purple or raspberry colored undertone. One of the most popular varieties, it is mined in East Africa, India and Sri Lanka and was originally discovered in the United States.

    Spessartite garnet can be red or blackish brown, but is most commonly available in golds, oranges and warmer browns. Originally named after its occurrence in the German Spessart Mountains, there was a surprising discovery of the bright orange-red stone in Nigeria and Namibia. Until then, spessartites had existed as mere collector’s items or rarities and were hardly ever used for jewelry because they were so rare. But the new location discovery changed the world of jewelry gemstones and spessartites made their way into jewelry fashion. The most popular type of spessartite is the mandarin garnet, a gem that features a bright orange hue.

    Traditionally given as 2nd wedding anniversary gifts, garnets are celebrated as January’s birthstone. They are found all over the world, including Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North America, South and Central America, and Southeast Asia. The garnet ranges from 7.0-7.5 on the Mohs Scale and has been given many different names throughout the gemstone trade, including Arizona Ruby, Arizona Spinel, Montana Ruby or New Mexico Ruby. The stone features a high refraction of light that creates an amazing brilliance and luminosity. In fact, Noah used a garnet lantern to illuminate the darkness and navigate the Ark through 40 days and nights of torrential rain.

    Throughout history, garnets have been widely known and prized for their rich hues and supposed mystical properties. Adored by the ancient Egyptian goddess Isis, the gem symbolized faith, truth and friendship and was a favorite of Egyptian jewelry artisans. Garnets were taken into the tombs with the dead as payment to the gods for safe passage through the nether world. It is said that King Solomon wore a large red garnet along with eleven other magical gems in his breastplate (representing the 12 steps of Jacob's Ladder) to help him win battles. Nineteenth-century Asiatic warriors even used the hard stones as bullets. In the 13th century, medieval travelers wore garnets as popular talismans and protective stones, many of which were carved with lions. The gems were thought to repel evil spirits, bad dreams and people with evil intent.

    Today, garnets are thought to have protective powers and can be carried by travelers to protect against accidents. The stone is said to light up the night and protect its owner from nightmares. It is also believed to strengthen the body and mind by sparking creativity and dispelling anger. People may use the stone to increase the power of their energy fields and gather good vibes. Current superstitions say that the stone symbolizes loyalty and can be exchanged between friends to symbolize affection and ensure they meet again.

    Earring Back Types


    The backing is an important part of an earring, providing a secure closure and comfortable fit. Keep in mind, some earring styles work better with certain back types. Experiment with the different types to find the best fit for you!

    Butterfly Back: A double looped piece resembling a butterfly that fits over a post. Variations on this design are called push back clasps. The basic post and butterfly back are usually used for stud earrings and lighter weight drop earrings.

    Hinged Snap Backs: This clasp features a hinged post that snaps into a groove on the back of the earring. It is commonly found on hoops. Sometimes the hinged post is curved to provide more room to fit around the ear, sometimes called a saddleback.

    Hook Backs: This earring backing is simply a long, bent post that fits through the piercing. Hooks have several variations, most notably the shepherd's hook and the French hook. While thin wire hooks reduce the weight of long earrings, making them more comfortable, they aren't as secure as other clasp styles.

    Lever Back: A hinged lever snaps shut against the curved post to form a closed loop around the ear lobe. This clasp is very secure and good for large or medium sized styles that drop just below the ear.

    Omega: Also called French clips, this clasp has a straight post and a looped lever. The hinged lever closes around the post and is held against the ear with pressure. The omega clasp is the most secure clasp, especially for the larger, heavier earrings.

    Screw back: This backing is a slight variation of the standard post and butterfly nut back. Instead of pushing on the back, the nut twists onto the threaded post. A screw back post design is often preferred for expensive diamond stud earrings that require increased security.