Gems en Vogue 14K Gold 7 x 5mm Exotic Gemstone & Diamond Ring
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All weights pertaining to gemstones, including diamonds, are minimum weights. Additionally, please note that many gemstones are treated to enhance their beauty. View Gemstone Enhancements and Special Care Requirements for important information.
By far the most common color of gold used in jewelry, yellow gold is gold in its natural shade. Yellow gold is usually alloyed with copper and silver to increase the strength of the metal. How yellow the metal is depends upon the content of gold. A 14-karat piece of jewelry will have a brighter yellow hue than a 10-karat piece. Likewise, an 18-karat piece of jewelry will have a deeper yellow than 14-karat gold, and so on.
Although gold is most often thought of as having a soft, yellow glow, the metal is available in an entire spectrum of different hues. The different colors of gold depend upon with which metals the gold is alloyed, or mixed.
Increasing in popularity in recent years, white gold has become fashionable as the preferred cool and contemporary look. White gold boasts the same properties as classic yellow gold, but achieves its white color by mixing with different alloys. In general, white gold is created when a nickel or palladium alloy (zinc and copper) is used. White gold may also be plated with an even whiter metal, such as rhodium, to enhance its cool appearance. As well, a white gold setting can enhance the rapture of white diamonds.
Rose or Pink Gold
Although gold is most often thought of as having a soft, yellow glow, the metal is available in an entire spectrum of different hues. The different colors of gold depend upon with which metals the gold is alloyed, or mixed.
Rose or pink-colored gold can be created by alloying copper with yellow gold. This hue of gold tends to have a pink, bluish tint that complements many skin tones.
Gold's softness and malleability make it a wonderful metal to work with when creating virtually any design in jewelry. But this softness can be a drawback as well. To make it stronger and more durable, gold is usually alloyed, or mixed, with other metals such as copper or silver. The higher a metal's percentage of gold content, the softer and more yellow the jewelry piece. The karat weight system used to measure gold in a piece is the same for all hues, including white and yellow gold.
The word “carat” is Arabic, meaning “bean seed.” This is because historically seeds were used to measure weights of gold and precious stones. In the United States, “karat” with a “k” is used to measure gold's purity, while “carat” with a “c” is used in measuring a gemstone's size. The karat mark of gold represents the percentage of pure gold to alloy.
In order to determine the karat weight of a specific item, simply look for the quality mark. Jewelry items will bear the stamp of their karatage based upon the United States or European system of marking. The United States system designates pieces by their karats—24K, 18K, 14K, 10K, etc. The European system designates pieces by their percentage of gold content. For instance, 10K gold is marked “417,” denoting 41.7% gold; 14K is marked “585,” denoting 58.5% gold; and 18K is marked “750,” denoting 75% gold; etc.
The symbol of spring and rebirth, the emerald has a color of green that communicates harmony, love of nature and a primeval joy of life. The word emerald was derived from the French “esmeraude,” which comes from the Greek root "smaragdos,” meaning simply “green gemstone.” For centuries, emerald green has been the color of beauty and eternal love. Even in ancient Rome, green was the color dedicated to Venus, goddess of love and beauty. Many cultures and religions today hold a special position for the color. For instance, green is the holy color of Islam; all states of the Arabian league sport green banners symbolizing the unity of their religion; and green is among the liturgy colors in the Catholic church. The emerald gem is May’s birthstone, and it is the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 20 th and 35 th anniversaries.
Emeralds come in a variety of light and dark shades of green, often with subtle background hues of other colors such as yellow, blue, brown or gray. Most often, the purer and richer the green color, the more valuable the stone. Flawless emeralds are exceptionally rare, and therefore command great prices (even higher than diamonds, in some instances). Most naturally grown emeralds, however, have numerous inclusions that weaken their structure and cloud their color. F laws and cloudiness, called “jardin,” are very common in emeralds, so many are treated in some way to remove surface flaws and enhance color. The most common technique is to oil the stone with a green-tinted oil that strengthens the stone and fills in surface cracks.
Emerald gemstones have been prized for thousands of years for their lush green hues and rare beauty. Venus, the goddess of love, is said to have loved the stone, and ancient Romans associated the emerald with her because it symbolized reproduction. Nero is said to have watched the Roman games in the coliseum through a set of highly prized emerald glasses. It's also said that Isis, the mother goddess, wore a green emerald on her headband. Supposedly, all who looked upon it would be able to conceive and were guaranteed a safe trip through the land of the dead. The gem is also considered the magical stone of forest spirits (elves).
In ancient Egypt, emeralds were mined close to the Red Sea. This tranquil green gem was highly prized by priests and the wealthy, and it is said that Cleopatra loved it more than any other gem. In fact, gemstone mines called “Cleopatra’s Mines” were exploited by Egyptian pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C., and were found empty when they were rediscovered centuries later. Even the ancient Incas and Aztecs in South America, where the best emeralds are still found today, worshipped the emerald as a holy stone. With the conquest of South America by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, emeralds became more plentiful in Europe. Pizarro and Cortez took over the existing emerald and gold mines of the Inca and Mayan civilizations. They shipped these fortunes back to Spain, who in turn shipped them to trading ports throughout the world, turning Spain into one of the leading world powers of the time.
Phrases about emeralds appear in the Veda, ancient sacred writings of Hinduism, including “Emeralds promise good luck” and “The emerald enhances your well-being.” Treasure chests of Indian Maharajas and Maharanis contained wonderful emeralds. One of the largest emeralds in the world is the "Mogul Emerald.” Dating back to the year 1695, it weighs 217.80 carats. One side is inscribed with prayers, while the other side is engraved with opulent flower ornaments. This legendary stone was auctioned off at Christie’s of London for 2.2 million U.S. dollars to an anonymous buyer. Other famous emeralds include a cup made from pure emerald that was owned by Emperor Jehingar. It is currently located in the New York Museum of Natural History, as is a Colombian emerald crystal weighing 632.00 carats. The entire collection is owned by the Bank of Bogota and contains five valuable emerald crystals weighing between 220.00 and 1,796.00 carats.
Throughout the ancient world, emerald symbolized eternal hope, rebirth and the arrival of spring. The ancients ascribed numerous magical and mystical properties to this most precious of green gems. It was believed to give a person psychic powers, in that the gem could tell if a lover’s affections were true. Some cultures believed the gem rewarded its owners with love, intelligence, eloquence and a soothed soul. Middle Age seers used emeralds to foretell the future, as well as to ward off evil spirits and cure ailments ranging from bad eyesight to infertility. During the Renaissance, emeralds were used as a test for friendship among the aristocracy. It was believed that an emerald given to a friend would remain perfect as long as the friendship endured. The stone was also said to improve memory and bring great wealth to its wearer.
Emeralds have long been thought to have healing powers, especially for eyesight. It is said that in business, emeralds can be used to promote sales and cash flow. It is also used to attract love by quickening the heart. The emerald is believed to put one in touch with the mind and have positive effects on psychic powers. It is said to increase those powers when used in meditation. Wearing an emerald bracelet on the left wrist is said to protect you when traveling in forests.
Brazil is by far the world's largest producer of emerald, with a wide range of quality. The finest emeralds have traditionally come from Colombia, but Russia's Ural Mountains also have produced top-quality gems. Other sources for the stone include Afghanistan, Australia, Egypt, India, Pakistan, South Africa, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Emeralds belong to the beryl group of stones. They have large, perfect, six-sided crystals with a hardness of 7.0-8.0 on the Mohs Scale.
Known for its fiery combination of colors, opal is called the "Cupid stone" because it was said to reflect the complexion of the Greek god of love. The ancient Romans believed the gem was the symbol of hope, good luck and purity. Today, it remains a symbol of hope and inspiration. With a name stemming from the Latin word for "precious stone," opal is considered October's birthstone and is traditionally given as a 14th anniversary gift.
Opals are luminous and iridescent stones with inclusions of many colors called "fire." It is sometimes called the "queen of gems" because it can flash patterns of color representing every hue of the rainbow. In fact, most stones are usually cut into domed cabochons to enhance the color play. The brilliance and pattern of an opal's fire determines its value. Opals with strong flashes of red fire are generally the most prized, while stones with blue or green flashes are more common and subsequently less valuable. Stone size also helps determine price, since the gem is very rare in larger sizes.
In order to produce a stone that is less expensive than a solid opal, an opal doublet can be manufactured. It is composed of a thin layer of opal glued on top of another mineral (usually a black onyx or ironstone, which enhances the opal's color). An opal triplet can be made with a thin layer of opal sandwiched between a layer of clear quartz on top and a layer of obsidian or ironstone on the bottom. The clear quartz top layer makes the gem harder and less susceptible to scratches. Since top-quality natural opals are extremely rare and expensive, many are treated with colorless oil, wax or resin to enhance their appearance. Ranking a hardness of 5.5-6.5 on the Mohs Scale, these treatments also fill cracks in the stone to improve durability.
A species of quartz, opal is one of the few gemstones that are sedimentary in origin. Millions of years ago, after ancient seas receded, silica-laden sediment was deposited around shorelines. Erosion made much of this silica into a solution that filled cracks in rocks, clay and fossils. Layers upon layers of silica jell were added to each other over millions of years and became precious opals. The stones still contain 6 to 10 percent water, a remnant of ancient seas. Because they have high water content, opals should be protected from heat and strong light in order to prevent them from drying out and cracking.
Opal is found in a range of hues, including white opal (the most common), black opal (the most valuable), boulder opal (black opal with iron oxide), crystal or water opal (which is transparent), and fire opal (which features a bright solid color). The body color determines the variety of opal and has a large impact on the value.
White opals tend to have more diffused fire due to their light background color. Rare black opals have a black to dark gray body color that allows for the fire to be the most noticeable, making them the most valuable type of opal. Boulder opals are cut with the natural host rock left on the back. They are found with interesting hills and valleys on the surface and inclusions in the foreground, forming odd shapes that make them a designer's delight. Crystal opal is transparent with flashes of rainbow colors, while fire opal only occasionally has this play of color. Fire opal's backdrop color is the main attraction. With bold yellows, oranges or reds, it is usually faceted to add sparkle and enhance the fabulous color.
The vast majority of the world's opal supply comes from Australia, first discovered there by gold panners in 1863. In addition to a small quantity of opal produced in Kenya and Canada, white opal is mined in Brazil, black opal is found only at Lightning Ridge in Australia, crystal and fire opal can be found in the United States and Mexico, and a blue-green opal is found in the Andes Mountains of Peru.
Opals have been treasured for thousands of years throughout the world. The gem was loved and highly valued by the Romans, who called it "opalus." In fact, a beautiful opal called the "orphanus" was featured in the crown of the Holy Roman Emperor and was said to guard the regal honor. The Aztecs mined opal in South and Central America and archaeologist Louis Leakey found 6,000-year-old opal artifacts in a cave in Kenya. Napoleon gave Josephine a beautiful opal with brilliant red flashes called "The Burning of Troy," making her his Helen. To this day, opals are still set in the crown jewels of France. Queen Victoria loved opals and often gave them as wedding gifts. She was one of the first to appreciate opals from Australia and, along with her daughters, created a fashion for wearing the gemstone.
There are also several literary references to the fascinating stone throughout history. Shakespeare regarded opal as a symbol of shifting inconstancy, comparing its play of color to play of mind. In "Twelfth Night" he wrote, "Now the melancholy God protect thee, and the tailor make thy garments of changeable taffeta, for thy mind is opal." In the 19th century, Sir Walter Scott caused a reputation that opals were unlucky. The heroine of his popular novel had her life force caught in the opal she wore in her hair and died when its fire was extinguished.
For thousands of years, opals have been revered for their supposed mystical powers. Romans thought the stone kept the wearer safe from disease and wore it near the heart on necklaces to ward off evil and protect travelers. Ancient Arabs believed that opals fell from heaven in flashes of lightning, which explained their fiery colors. During the Middle Ages, opal was called "ophthalmios," meaning "eye stone," due to a widespread belief that it was beneficial to eyesight. Some thought its effect on sight could render the wearer invisible, and the stone was even recommended for thieves. In medieval Scandinavia, blonde women wore opals in their hair to prevent it from going grey.
Today, opals are still believed to hold magical powers. White opals, when used in rituals on a full moon night, are said to bring the moon goddess' powers into full effect within the practitioner. Specially shaped black opals are often worn on gold jewelry to further enhance their magical properties and powers. A fire opal surrounded with 10 or 12 diamonds and worn on a gold necklace is said to have excellent money-drawing power.
Opals have been said to bring good luck, grant vigor and ideally protect travelers. The stones have long been believed to develop and increase mental capacities and open the unused powers of the mind. The colorful fire in opals is said to develop a more creative imagination and help recall past lives. It is believed that the most magically powerful opals come from Lightning Ridge in Australia and that the gem loses its power once its owner dies.
Tourmaline occurs in virtually every color of the spectrum, with an unlimited range of solid and mixed colors in all imaginable shades. According to an ancient Egyptian legend, this is the result of the gemstone traveling along a rainbow from the Earth's heart, up to the sun. On its journey, the legend says that tourmaline collected all the colors of the rainbow, which is why it is called the "Rainbow Gemstone."
The gem is found in hues of red, pink, green, blue, yellow, black, brown and colorless. It also can be bi-colored or multi-colored. Some tourmalines are very faint in color, while others are so dark that the color is only discernible when light is shone through the stone. There are even tourmalines that change their color from daylight to artificial light.
Tourmalines displaying just one color are quite rare since one crystal usually shows two or more shades or colors. In fact, the name "tourmaline" has been derived from the Singhalese expression "tura mali," which translates to "stone of mixed colors." Even two stones cut from the same rough mother crystal will often show different colors, a characteristic that makes tourmalines so attractive and sought-after.
Tourmaline also shows a remarkable dichroism. This means that when viewed from different directions, the stone will display different colors, or at least show different intensities. The deepest color always appears along the main axis, a fact that is important for the gem cutter to focus upon when cutting the stone. Tourmalines rank a hardness of 7.0-7.5 on the Mohs Scale and may be as small as a knitting needle or as thick as a thigh. They are easily available in sizes of up to 5.00ct.
Different shades of colored tourmalines have been assigned specific names in the gemstone world. Bi-colored and multi-colored tourmalines have several names for the common combinations of colors. Crystals with red or pink cores and green borders are called watermelon-tourmalines. Stones with colorless crystals and black tips are called Maur's Head or Moor's Head, while colorless crystals with red tips are called Turk's Head. If the color zones are arranged one on top of the other, the stone is considered a rainbow tourmaline.
The red variety of tourmaline changes its name based on the coloring in different types of lighting. Deep red tourmaline named rubellite shows the same fine ruby-red shade in daylight and in artificial light. Should the color change when the source of light changes, the stone is simply called a pink tourmaline. With its exquisitely intense coloring, rubellite was once the victim of misidentification for rubies in the Russian crown jewels.
Green tourmalines come in a variety of shades, including leek-green, intense yellow-green, olive-green and brownish-green. Chromium-tourmaline is the trade name for the emerald-green variety. Its beautiful color is strikingly similar to the fine color of emeralds. Blue-green and dark bottle-green are the most rare and highly coveted green hues.
Perhaps the most beautiful variety is the Paraiba tourmaline. It ranges in color from electric blue to neon blue-green to sizzling turquoise. Discovered in the Brazilian state of Paraiba, its vivid color has not been consistently seen in any other gemstone variety. Its spectacular color is due to the presence of a small amount of copper. A study by the German Foundation for Gemstone Research also discovered a surprisingly high content of gold in the stones.
Until recently, there was one striking gap in the range of colors displayed by tourmaline. Pure yellow shades were missing and most of the yellow tourmalines that were found showed a slightly brownish tinge. In the year 2000, however, electric yellow tourmalines were found in Malawi in East Africa. With a clear and pure color, they were deemed "canary tourmalines" and the formerly missing color of yellow was added in excellent quality to the unlimited range of tourmaline colors.
Larger yellow tourmalines rarely occur. Only 10 percent of all the mined yellow stones are gem-quality and when cut, more than 95 percent of the harvest will weigh less than 1.00ct. Regardless of their smaller size, experienced cutters love working with the stones. Not only do they have brilliant color, yellow tourmalines are considered to be the only gemstones that have a fine scent. This is because in the place of their occurrence, tourmaline crystals are often embedded into black material that must be removed before the stones are cut. An owner of a Malawi gemstone mine discovered the black matter was easily removed when the rough crystals were boiled in water and lemon juice. Ever since then, yellow tourmalines from Malawi not only resemble fresh lemons in color, but also in their scent before they are cut.
Other tourmalines are called "indigolith" if they are blue and "dravite" if they are golden to dark brown. Black tourmalines are known as "schorls" and are mainly used for engraving. Although they were used as mourning jewelry, ancients believed black tourmalines to be stones that protected against negativity and strengthened the heart.
Tourmalines are piezoelectric, meaning they can generate electrical charges when heated, compressed or vibrated. They then become polarized crystalline magnets and can attract light objects. The Dutch knew about this effect and used heated tourmalines to extract ashes from their pipes. The stones were even favorite toys of Dutch children before their gem quality was established. Because the gem's electrical charges attract dust and small materials, some believe that wearing pink tourmalines will attract love and green ones will attract success.
Tourmaline has often been called the "muses' stone" because it is believed that its imaginative colors contain inspirational powers that grant enlightenment, enable creativity and express an artist's mood. Due to the stones' energetic conductivity and vast array of elements, they are thought to have powerful healing abilities and protect against many dangers. Tourmaline is supposed to be an especially powerful influence on love and friendship, fostering compassion and cool headedness. It is considered the traditional gift to give couples celebrating their 8th wedding anniversary.
Ever since the ancient days, the gem has been attributed with magical powers. Today, specific colors of tourmaline are thought to hold individualized powers. Black is believed to bring luck and happiness when rubbed. Green is said to encourage communication and bring success, while blue is a balancer that stimulates other tourmalines' effectiveness. Watermelon tourmaline is believed to increase perception and creativity, while balancing passivity and aggressiveness. Pink is thought to promote peace, increase spiritual understanding and bring forth love and friendship.
Kunzite is a rare and expensive semi-precious gemstone that is most famous for its delicately pale, lilac pink color. It is known for its strong pleochroism, meaning it shows lighter and more intense coloring when viewed at different angles. For this reason, the pastel gem is always cut to show the deepest pink color through the top of the gem; the deeper the pink, the more valuable the stone. Because kunzite shows its best color in larger sizes, small sizes tend to be very pale. It needs a certain amount of mass to bring out its color, so stones should weigh at least 10.00ct to be really in the pink. The largest faceted kunzite is an 880.00ct stone that is on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.
Kunzite is often called the “evening stone” because it should be protected from strong sunlight. Direct sunlight and heat can fade the gem’s color over time. It is an especially fragile stone due to its crystalline structure. In fact, kunzite’s perfect cleavage and splintery fracture make it one of the most difficult gems to cut. It is a relatively hard gemstone, however, with a hardness rating on the Mohs Scale of 6.0-7.0.
First significantly found in Pala, California in 1902, kunzite is named as a tribute to George F. Kunz. He was the legendary gemologist and chief gem buyer for Tiffany & Co at the turn of the century, and was a pioneer of the science now known as gemology. Kunz wrote The Curious Lore of Precious Stones and searched the world for old stories and legends about gems while seeking new varieties and new deposits. Today, most kunzite is mined in Brazil, Afghanistan and Madagascar, and generally found in larger sizes of 10.00ct or more.
Modern folklore says that kunzite promotes emotional support and balance by helping to keep the mind and emotions in sync. It is believed that the gem aids in giving confidence and connection to a higher self. Many believe it reduces mood swings and stress while easing tension. It is also suggested that kunzite increases the ability to open the heart to love and trust. In fact, the gem is considered a major gemstone of love, good for improving self-love, unconditional love of others and communication in loving relationships. Also known as a communication stone, kunzite is believed to help people better understand and interact with others.
No other gemstone discovery has made a bigger impact on the jewelry market than the recent newcomer, tanzanite. Its luscious color, and the fact that the stone is found in only one location throughout the world, makes tanzanite an exceptionally rare, valuable and highly sought-after gem.
Tanzanite’s mesmerizing saturation of color is what has made the stone so popular. It is the blue variety of the mineral zoisite and occurs in a beautiful range of colors. Rarely pure blue, the gem almost always displays signature overtones of purple. In smaller sizes, it tends toward light tones such as lavender, while in larger sizes, the gem typically displays deeper, richer blues and purples. The finest quality tanzanite is usually deep blue or violet, which is extremely spectacular in sizes above ten carats.
Tanzanite is pleochroic, meaning it shows the appearance of several colors in the same stone, depending on perspective. From different angles, the gem can appear blue, purple, yellow, grey or brown. Most rough crystals show a large proportion of brown shades, since tanzanite in its natural form is typically brown with red, orange, yellow or bronze hues.
Gem cutters may change this coloring by heating the stone to 500°C. This heat treatment releases the intense violet-blue colors for which the stone is famous. According to legend, the effect of heat on tanzanite was first discovered when brown zoisite crystals were caught on fire by a lightning strike. Local cattle herders noticed the beautiful blue crystals sparkling in the sun and picked them up, becoming the first tanzanite collectors.
The gem was first discovered near the base of Mount Kilimanjaro in the Merelani Hills of east-African Tanzania in 1967. This breathtaking location is the only known mining site on Earth for tanzanite. Right after its discovery, New York jeweler Louis Comfort Tiffany was presented with the first stones. Knowing it was going to be a sensation, he recommended finding a new name for the gem, since the gemological denomination “blue zoisite” reminded him of the word “suicide.” Tiffany suggested the name tanzanite, derived from its place of occurrence, and the new name quickly became established on the market. Tiffany & Co introduced the stone to the public in a spectacular promotional campaign two years after it had been discovered. It was enthusiastically celebrated as the “Gemstone of the 20th Century.”
A noted 122.70ct faceted tanzanite dubbed the “Midnight Blue” is on display at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. In 1996, a 255.00ct tanzanite crystal was discovered near Arusha, but because of its many inclusions, it proved to be of little market value. Tanzanite ranks a hardness of 6.5-7.0 on the Mohs Scale and has become the traditional gift for couples celebrating their 24th anniversaries.
High-quality and larger-size tanzanites can be sold at extremely premium prices. Although demand for this beautiful gem continues to grow, supply shortages in recent years have hampered production and caused price fluctuations. In 1998, the weather phenomenon known as “El Nino” soaked Tanzania with heavy rains during what should have been the drought period. When the monsoons hit, the groundwater swells were high and caused devastating floods. Mines caved in and all hopes of finding additional tanzanite rough were swept away.
Because it is such a new gemstone, there is little folklore, superstitions or healing properties surrounding tanzanite. Some believe the stone helps people to be more practical, realistic and honest. It is thought to uplift and open the heart while helping one cope with change.
The name apatite comes from a Greek word "apatos," meaning deception, which alludes to the mineral's similarity with other more valuable minerals such as olivine, peridot and beryl. It can be transparent to opaque, with color that is typically green but can also be yellow, blue, reddish brown, violet and colorless. This gem exhibits an unusual "partially dissolved" look similar to the look of previously sucked-on hard candy.
Apatite is widely distributed in all rock types, but is usually just found as small grains or fragments. Large and well-formed crystals, though, can be found in certain contact metamorphic rocks; but with a hardness of 5.0 on the Mohs Scale, the softness of apatite prevents wide distribution in the jewelry market. Apatite occurs generally in rather rough prismatic crystals, the largest being 4 inches long and 1 inch in diameter.
In most limestone quarries, careful search shows the presence of small prisms of bright green apatite in the limestone. Notable occurrences include Germany, Brazil, Russia, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Canada, East Africa, Sweden, Spain and Mexico.