Sterling silver, also called fine silver, is a beautifully lustrous cool-toned precious metal favored in fine jewelry among other products. The most reflective of all metals (excluding mercury), sterling silver looks stunning by itself and brings out the best hues in an array of colorful gemstones.
Sterling silver can be polished to a higher sheen than platinum. In fact, Ag, the chemical symbol for silver, comes from a word that means “white and shining.” The surface of silver can boast that shiny, polished appearance, or can be brushed, satin, matte, sandblasted, antiqued or oxidized (chemically blackened).
In order to be called sterling silver, a metal must be made up of a minimum of 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% alloy (meaning other metals), including but not limited to copper and nickel. The alloy is added to pure silver to make the metal more durable, tougher and harder. Sterling silver is designated a fineness of “925.” Pieces with sterling silver may be marked “sterling.”
Minimize scratches on sterling silver by storing it in its own compartment in your jewelry box or in a cloth pouch. Sterling silver may also be stored in sealed polyethylene bags.
Often referred to as the “Queen of Garnets,” rhodolite is the violet-red variety of the garnet family. Its most prized color is a beautiful raspberry, but the gem can also be found in shades of pink, red and wine. The name is derived from the Greek words “rhodon” and “lithos,” meaning rose-stone, which connects the gemstone today with the raspberry-pink flower known as the rhododendron.
Rhodolite is a combination of almandine and pyrope garnets. Although it is occasionally found in volcanic rock, the stone is most often found in alluvial deposits in the form of water-worn pebbles. For this reason, large solitaires weighing 5.00ct or more are seldom seen at retail. Most rhodolite is mined in Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. It ranks a 7.5 on the Mohs Scale and is ideal for jewelry.
The ancients wore rhodolites as amulets for protection from injury or death in battles. Modern folklore says rhodolite can help one understand dreams, as well as bring about love and devotion when given as a gift.
Tiger eye, also called tiger’s eye, received its name because it has rich yellow and golden brown bands resembling an eye of a tiger. The stone is a common form of brown quartz that has parallel stripes and lustrous colors. It comes in various, luminous shades of light or dark brown due to iron oxides. Tiger’s eye has the property of chatoyancy, meaning that when cut into a cabochon, it can shine with only a small ray of light on its surface, much like the eyes of a cat.
Also called crocidolite cat’s-eye or African cat’s-eye, the gem has a hardness of 7.0 on the Mohs Scale. Its most important deposit is in South Africa, though it is also found in western Australia, Myanmar (formerly Burma), India and California. Tiger’s eye has recently become a modern anniversary gemstone for the 9th year of marriage.
Roman soldiers wore tiger’s eye for protection in battle and the stone is said to enhance courage and bring physical strength. Tiger’s eye is also believed to offer protection during travel and dispel negative energies. The gem is said to strengthen confidence, willpower and convictions, which in turn help people to accomplish goals, increase wealth and achieve a joyful outlook. Tiger’s eye is thought to help people recognize their inner power, leading them to attain their dreams and bring passion and vitality to their lives.
Perhaps tiger eye’s greatest folklore is that it is believed to promote mental clarity and balance. The gem is said to focus the mind and teach people to see with the eye of the tiger, clearly and without illusion. It is believed that tiger eye’s soothing vibrations can generate a calming effect that diminishes unclear thinking. The stone’s subtle energies are thought to bring order, stability and discipline to life. Tiger’s eye is closely attuned to Earth energies, but its yellow highlights are linked to the sun. Because it is believed to be a bridge between Earth and sky, it is considered a tool for balance between the physical and the spiritual. As a link between Father Sky and Mother Earth, the stone’s influence is thought to be one of harmony between yin and yang.
Found all over the world, agate has been creatively striped by nature. It is a type of chalcedony quartz that forms in concentric layers of colors and textures. Each individual agate forms by filling a cavity in a host rock. As a result, agate often is found as a round nodule with concentric bands like the rings of a tree trunk. Tiny quartz crystals called druzy (sometimes spelled as drusy) often form within the stone, adding to its beauty and uniqueness. Agate is a hard stone, within the range of 7.0-9.0 on the Mohs Scale.
In 1497, the mining of agate in the Nahe River valley in Germany gave rise to the cutting center of Idar-Oberstein. When the Nahe agate deposit was exhausted in the nineteenth century, Idar cutters started to develop the agate deposits of Brazil, discovering Brazil's rich deposits of many other gemstones. A famous collection of two to four thousand agate bowls, accumulated by Mithradates, King of Pontus, shows the popularity of agate at the time. Agate bowls were also popular in the Byzantine Empire. Collecting agate bowls became common among European royalty during the Renaissance and many museums in Europe, including the Louvre, have spectacular examples.
Although the small town of Idar-Oberstein is still known for the finest agate carving in the world, today Idar imports a huge range of other gem materials from around the world for cutting and carving in Germany. Cameo master carvers, modern lapidary artists and rough dealers flourish there, exporting their latest gem creations. It is an entire industry that grew from the desire for agate products during the Renaissance.
Agate was highly valued as a talisman or amulet in ancient times. It was said to quench thirst and protect from fevers. Persian magicians used agate to divert storms. Today, some believe that agate is a powerful emotional healer and helps people discern the truth.
Earring Back Types
The backing is an important part of an earring, providing a secure closure and comfortable fit. Keep in mind, some earring styles work better with certain back types. Experiment with the different types to find the best fit for you!
Butterfly Back: A double looped piece resembling a butterfly that fits over a post. Variations on this design are called push back clasps. The basic post and butterfly back are usually used for stud earrings and lighter weight drop earrings.
Hinged Snap Backs: This clasp features a hinged post that snaps into a groove on the back of the earring. It is commonly found on hoops. Sometimes the hinged post is curved to provide more room to fit around the ear, sometimes called a saddleback.
Hook Backs: This earring backing is simply a long, bent post that fits through the piercing. Hooks have several variations, most notably the shepherd's hook and the French hook. While thin wire hooks reduce the weight of long earrings, making them more comfortable, they aren't as secure as other clasp styles.
Lever Back: A hinged lever snaps shut against the curved post to form a closed loop around the ear lobe. This clasp is very secure and good for large or medium sized styles that drop just below the ear.
Omega: Also called French clips, this clasp has a straight post and a looped lever. The hinged lever closes around the post and is held against the ear with pressure. The omega clasp is the most secure clasp, especially for the larger, heavier earrings.
Screw back: This backing is a slight variation of the standard post and butterfly nut back. Instead of pushing on the back, the nut twists onto the threaded post. A screw back post design is often preferred for expensive diamond stud earrings that require increased security.